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Articles

Photo of entire crisps/chips and their crumbs
David Honigs, Gary E. Ritchie

This column has invited two world-renowned experts in near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to let the world benefit from decades of leading-edge experience, especially regarding sampling for quantitative NIR analysis.

Sampling Column  |  Issue 34/4 (2022)
Antony N. Davies, Howard Mark

Following on from a recent column that reported on work which had shown that weight fractions were often incorrect concentration units to use in quantitative chemometric studies, Howard Mark goes into more detail.

Tony Davies Column  |  Issue 33/1 (2021)
Shuo He Yan, Zheng Zhu, Joëlle Wallon

This article reports the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the diagnosis of human breast cancer using tissue sections similar to those used by pathologists.

Article  |  Issue 16/4 (2020)
Antony N. Davies, Jan Gerretzen, Henk-Jan van Manen

The authors offer many useful points to consider when using pre-processing techniques.

Tony Davies Column  |  Issue 31/6 (2019)
J. Chris McKnight

This article reports on work using NIR spectroscopy to investigate the physiology of seals during diving. As well as the versatility of NIR spectroscopy, the technical achievements involved in placing a spectrometer on a seal without harming it and recording data underwater are amazing.

Article  |  Issue 31/6 (2019)
Rodolfo J. Romañach, Rafael Méndez, Kim H. Esbensen

This column shows how well the Theory of Sampling is able to address the powder sampling difficulties that have plagued the pharmaceutical industry for a long time. Definitely, a practical example of the importance of representative sampling.

Sampling Column  |  Issue 31/5 (2019)
Felipe Bachion de Santana, Sandro Keiichi Otani, André Marcelo de Souza, Ronei Jesus Poppi

The authors describe work they are doing to develop a green methodology to determine soil organic matter. If the World’s population is to be fed in the future, improvements to agricultural productivity are required and soil fertility will be key to this. Current methodologies are time-consuming and expensive, but visible-near infrared spectroscopy has the potential to replace them.

Article  |  Issue 31/4 (2019)
Aoife C. Power, James Chapman, Daniel Cozzolino

Knowledge of the origin of bones has applications in anthropology, archaeology and forensics; NIR spectroscopy, even with handheld instruments, is showing promise in being able to differentiate bones from different species.

Article  |  Issue 30/6 (2018)
Jacques Thierie

Jacques Thierie’s article raises a seemingly impossible observation: that in some cases, transparency can exceed 100 %.

Article  |  Issue 30/5 (2018)
Enrico Pigorsch, Matthias Finger, Johanna Kerber, Michael Fleck

We all know how spectroscopy and other analytical technologies have played important roles in detecting fraud and in authentication. Paper collages, or photomontages, are part of the art market that is seeing much interest amongst collectors. It is difficult to detect forgeries just through expertise. The use of NIR imaging offers a number of ways to identify forgeries or authenticate the collage non-destructively; from determining the glue used to the revealing of printing on the back of the pieces or paper, which often have been taken from books and magazines.

Article  |  Issue 29/1 (2017)
Catherine E. Nicholson, Andrew Beeby, Richard Gameson

It is not every issue that one of our articles starts with a quotation in medieval English, and it is appropriate as two of our articles cover the use of spectroscopy in cultural heritage. This is yet another field where the rich information provided by spectroscopy, along with its non-destructive nature (for many techniques), portability and ability to generate chemical images make it the answer to many questions. Kate Nicholson, Andrew Beeby and Richard Gameson are responsible for the medieval English at the start of their article “Shedding light on medieval manuscripts”. They describe the general use of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of historical artefacts, and, in particular, their work on medieval European manuscripts and 18th century watercolour pigments. They stess the importance of checking the actual laser power density to avoid damage to priceless artefacts.

Article  |  Issue 28/4 (2016)
A.H. Jean Robertson, Charles Shand, Estefania Perez-Fernandez

Once again developments in portable instruments lead to greater ease of use and the ability to measure far more samples. They describe the application of FT-IR, NIR and XRF spectroscopies to the development of the National Soils Inventory of Scotland, and their work in developing the use of handheld instruments, particularly FT-IR spectrometers.

Article  |  Issue 28/4 (2016)
C.K. Pezzei, M. Watschinger, V.A. Huck-Pezzei, C.B.S. Lau, P.C. Leung, C.W. Huck

Benchtop mid-IR and NIR as well as portable NIR instruments are used for quick and non-invasive quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine. Adulterations could be detected, as well as the raw herbs and different sources of the Si-Wu-Tang. The success of the mobile NIR instrument is particularly interesting due to the growing interest in such technology for its ease-of-use and cost.

Article  |  Issue 28/3 (2016)
Maren Fiege, Sára Harkai, Diana Weigel, Michael Pütz, Hans Meyer, Heinz Pritzke, Sabine Neuberger, Christian Neusüß, Eva Woltmann, Carolin Huhn, Andrey Bogomolov, Björn Fähler, Klaus Schürmann

In the Tony Davies Column, we learn about “Automated detection of counterfeit drugs using multimodal spectroscopy and advanced web-based software platforms”. With the increase in trafficking of counterfeit medicines and other products, there is a need for definitive results from an on-site analyser useable by customs officers. The German authorities have commissioned the development of a multi-modal, transportable inspection system, including intelligent data processing and evaluation, for fast spectroscopic recognition of illicit drugs and counterfeit medicines. This is described in the column.

Tony Davies Column  |  Issue 27/4 (2015)
Arja M. Kullaa, Surya P. Singh, Jopi W. Mikkonen, Arto P. Koistinen

“Optical spectroscopy in therapy response monitoring: an awakening giant” by Arja Kullaa, Surya Singh, Jopi Mikkonen and Arto Koistinen looks at the important advances made by optical spectroscopy techniques, such as diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), Raman, diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy, in changing how cancer is managed in patients. The ability to repeatedly monitor tumour dynamics to see how effective a particular treatment has been has enormous potential for us all.

Article  |  Issue 27/1 (2015)
A.M.C. Davies

This is Tony’s last column for Spectroscopy Europe. It is explores an idea that he has been developing for over 30 years, although as Tony points out the story starts around 3500 years ago.

Tony Davies Column  |  Issue 26/6 (2014)
Dmitry Khoptyar, Sören Johansson, Staffan Strömblad, Stefan Andersson-Engels

The analysis of turbid samples is increasingly important, not least due to their widespread occurrence in natural samples. Dmitry Khoptyar, Sören Johansson, Staffan Strömblad and Stefan Andersson-Engels show “Broadband photon time-of-flight spectroscopy as a prospective tool in biomedicine and industrial process and quality control”. The authors describe their recent development of a broadband spectrometer for evaluation of absorption and scattering spectra of very diverse turbid materials in the visible and close-near infrared (NIR) regions and its application with milk, cheese and paper samples.

Article  |  Issue 26/3 (2014)
A.M.C. Davies

Tony (A.M.C.) Davies looks at Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) this issue, as well as expressing his opinions about Principal Components Regression (PCR) and Partial Least-Squares (PLS).

Tony Davies Column  |  Issue 26/2 (2014)
A.M.C. Davies

Tony (A.M.C.) continues down the last furlong of his series of Tony Davies Column articles. This issue, he considers principal component analysis (PCA). Using research recently published in the Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, he explains that PCA is a very useful tool but it will not solve all our problems. Two old articles on PCA, including Tony’s concept of the “Data Cake” have been added to the website, are referenced in Tony’s article and can be freely downloaded by readers.

Tony Davies Column  |  Issue 25/6 (2013)
Aoife A. Gowen, Colm P. O’Donnell

With continuing food scares around the world, food producers need every tool they can get to prevent contamination of their products at every stage of production. Hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the NIR combined with chemometrics shows much promise for the detection and identification of foreign bodies among food grains.

Article  |  Issue 25/6 (2013)